Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in infants is among the most prevalent micronutrient malnutrition problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, there is an urgent need to fortify cereal-based complementary foods (ComFs) with β-carotene-rich sources like orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP). In this study, two processing approaches were employed to develop ComFs: household-level approach (combined traditional practices) and industrial-level approach (extrusion cooking). In case of the household-level approach, portions of teff and soybean grains were separately germinated and blanched/roasted, respectively, followed by milling to fine flour. ComFs were developed by blending flours from ungerminated teff (60%), germinated teff (10%), blanched or roasted soybean (20%) and OFSP (10%). For the industrial-level approach, teff, soybean and OFSP were separately processed and mixed in a percentage ratio of 70:20:10, respectively, to form a composite flour which was then extruded into a complementary food. The developed ComFs were analyzed for their vitamin A, calcium, iron, zinc and phytate contents. Moreover, phytate:mineral molar ratios of the ComFs were calculated. Significantly (p < 0.05) high vitamin A values ranging from 91.89 to 160.97 μgRE/100 g were obtained. Calcium, iron and zinc compositions of all ComFs met recommended levels for 6–8 month-old infants. Phytate contents of teff and soybean were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced both by household- and industrial-level approaches. However, the reduction was not significant (p > 0.05) for the ComFs prepared through the household-level approach. Phytate:mineral molar ratios for calcium and zinc were below the critical limits indicating that their bioavailabilities were improved while the bioavailability of iron was improved only for the industrial-level ComF. In conclusion, the teff-soybean-OFSP formulation of complementary foods resulted in improved compositions of vitamin A and the minerals analyzed.
Key Words: Teff, orange-fleshed sweet potato, complementary food, vitamin A, minerals, molar ratio
*Corresponding author: Mesfin Tenagashaw, Lecturer & Doctoral Fellow, Food Science and Nutrition, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya. P.O.Box: 62000-00200, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Mob: +254-704166691 or +251-911319136
Authors: Mesfin Tenagashaw
Subjects: MPU CoP
Publication Date: 2017
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) - You can copy, distribute, display and perform the work and evolved versions of it. You must give the original creator credit for the work.
Keywords: Complementary food, minerals, molar ratio, Orange-fleshed sweet potato, Teff, Vitamin A